Anisoptera costata Korth. - DIPTEROCARPACEAE

Synonym : Anisoptera oblongaDyer
Shorea nervosa Kurz
Anisoptera cochinchinensis Pierre
Anisoptera robusta Pierre
Anisoptera marginatoides Heim
Anisoptera glabra

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Large evergreen trees, bole often fluted, bark deeply fissured, scaly leaving a swirling pattern. Exudate resinous. Leaves densely stellately hairy. Stipules free, tomentose. Flower pink, petals contorted. Fruit a winged nut with 2 long wings and 3 small.
Habit : Evergreen tree, 30-40 m. height.
Trunk & bark : Bole straight, long and fluted at base. Young trees have smooth bark while mature trees have scaly, deeply fissured bark, dark brown in color, inner bark gritty.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Branches gross, terete; twigs densely grouped, tomentose with yellow stellate hairs.
Exudates : Exudate resinous.
Leaves : Leaves simple alternate, 7-15 cm by 4-7.5 cm, obovate, apex obtuse, base rounded, margin entire, underside densely and petiole hairy with yellow stellate hairs.
Midrib canaliculated above, prominent below, secondary vein oblique, widely parallel.
Stipules present, tomentose, soon falling up.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers grouped in terminal or axillary panicles, pendulous with stellate hairs, whitish cream to pink. Pedicel less than 0.5 cm long.
Fruits : The fruit is a nut, 1-1.5 cm. in diameter, globose, acuminate tip with short hairs, two large wings and three small wings, the large wings with three main nerves.
Seeds : Six or more seeds.

Habitat and ecology :

In evergreen or open and degraded forests up to 500 m altitude. They grow well along the rivers or streams.
Flowering period: June to February; fruiting time: March to April.

Distribution :

Burma (Myanmar), Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysian peninsular, Java, Borneo, Philippines and Laos (Khammouan).

Remark/notes/uses :
The high quality wood is used for furniture, veneer, plywood, construction and ship planking. The fragrant oily-resin is used locally for caulking boats and exported to be processed for paints and lacquers.

Specimens studied :
BT 23 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Flore du Cambodge, du Laos et du Viêtnam. 1960-2003. Vol. 25. Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, France.
Dipterocarps of Vietnam. 2005. Forest Science Institute of Vietnam. Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Dung, Vu Van. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Agriculture Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.
B. Svengsuksa & J.E. Vidal. 1997. Les Dipterocarpacées du Laos. Université du Laos, Vientiane, Laos.
Simon Gardner & al. 2000. A field guide to Forest trees of Northern Thailand. Kobfai Publishing Project, Thailand.
Rachun Pooma & Mark Newman. 2001. Checklist of Dipterocarpaceae in Thailand, Thai Forest Bulletin, no 29. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand.
Hoang Van Sam, K. Nanthavong & P.J.A. Keβler. 2004. Trees of Laos and Vietnam: A field guide to 100 economically or ecologically important species. Blumea no 49.

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