Castanopsis acuminatissima (Blume) A.DC. - FAGACEAE

Basionym : Castanea acuminatissima Blume

Synonym : C. sessifolia Blume
Quercus lineata Miq.
Quercus junghuhnii Miq.
Quercus fargiformis Jungh.
Quercus acuminatissima (Blume) A.DC.
Synaedrys fargiformis ( Junh) Koidz.
Castanopsis schlenkerae Baile
Castanopsis bejaudii A. Camus

Common name : White oak

English   Lao   

Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Leaves lanceolate, untoothed or slightly toothed near top only, glossy above when mature and slightly silvery . Twigs with conspicuous lenticels. Fruit obliquely ovoid with 4-5 rows of short and irregular spines.
Habit : Evergreen tree up to 40 m high, 60-250 cm in diameter. Branches ascending to main trunk.
Trunk & bark : Trunk straight. Bark deeply fissured, pustular and densely lenticellate, greyish-brown or dark brown, inner bark reddish. Wood white.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Twigs terete, glabrous, reddish-brown, lenticellate.
Exudates : Exudate absent.
Leaves : Leaves simple alternate and spiral, 5-15 by 2.5 - 6 cm, lanceolate with long tip, base acute to attenuate, margin slightly dentate near top only, blade coriaceous, drying light yellow, glossy above and beneath. Below slightly brown-silvery due to scales. Young leaves densely tomentose, brownish.
Midrib canaliculated above, primary vein single, secondary veins oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, tertiary veins oblique.
Stipules triangular, very small.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers grouped in panicle of spikes, terminal or axillary, yellowish.
Fruits : Fruit ovoid nut, spiny, 1.5-2 by 1-1.53 cm, green when young.
Seeds : 1-2 seeds, slightly pointed at tip, smooth and slightly hairy.

Habitat and ecology :

Found in lowland evergreen forest, lower montane forest and mixed deciduous forest, in remnants of Pinus merkusii, Schima wallichii, Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and other Fagaceae species. Flowering period: March- April, fruiting time: July-November.

Distribution :

Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, India, Indonesia (Type), Japan, Malaysia, New Guinea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and Laos (Borikhamxay, Khammouan).

Remark/notes/uses :
The wood may be used in construction and as firewood. Fruits edible in the cooked state.

Specimens studied :
BT 236, Ph 37 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Chamlong Phengklai et al. 1984. Fagaceae of Thailand. BRT, The Thai Response to Biodiversity.
Chamlong Phengklai. 2006. Fagaceae. Thai Forest Bulletin, no 34. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand.
Flore Générale de l’Indochine. 1929. Vol. 5, Fasc. 8-10. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Phanérogamie, Paris, France.
Gardner S., Sidisunthorn P. & Anusarnsunthorn V. 2000. A field guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Kobfai Publishing Project. Bangkok. Thailand.

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