Canarium tonkinensis Engl. - BURSERACEAE

Synonym : Hearnia balansae C.DC.

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Botanical descriptions Habitat and ecology Distribution

Botanical descriptions :

Diagnostic characters : Large deciduous trees with scaly bark. Twigs re-brown hairy when young becoming glabrous. Exudate white, aromatic. Leaves imparipinnate, alternate, clustered at ends of branches, leaflets opposite, base asymmetric. Stipules free, awl-shaped. Flowers yellowish-green. Fruit a drupe with a hard stone.
Habit : A medium tree, up to 18 m high, 25 cm in diameter. Branches ascending to the main trunk. Crown small and rounded.
Trunk & bark : Bole straight, and cylindrical. Bark smooth, grey. Inner bark yellowish-white.
Branches and branchlets or twigs : Twigs terete, covered with persistent brown hairs.
Exudates : Aromatic white resinous sap.
Leaves : Leaves compound imparipinnate, alternate spiral, leaflets opposite, 5-9 by 2-7 cm sized, ovate-elliptic, apex acute slightly acuminate, base rounded, some slightly asymmetric, margin entire slightly dentate with hairs clustered on margin, rachis 27-30 cm long, blade papery, glabrescent on both sides.
Midrib flat above, primary vein single, secondary veins oblique to the midrib, widely parallel, tertiary veins oblique. Rachis 26-28 cm long. Stipule inconspicuous with very long hairs.
Inflorescences or flowers : Flowers small, greenish-white, grouped in axillary cymose inflorescence.
Fruits : Fruit is drupe, ovoid-oblong, nearly rounded at both ends. Dull yellow when mature.
Seeds : 1 seeds.

Habitat and ecology :

In degraded forest, from 500 m altitude. Flowering: April to May; fruiting: June to October.

Distribution :

Vietnam, Laos (Bolikhamxay province).

Remark/notes/uses :
Wood susceptible to termites but has been used for matches and boxes. Resin less fragrant than Canarium album, is used in incense making.

Specimens studied :
BT 135 (Herbarium of Faculty of Sciences-NUoL, NHN-Leiden and CIRAD-Montpellier).

Literature :
Flore Générale de l’Indochine. 1911-1912. Vol.1, Fasc. (7). Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire de Phanérogamie, Paris, France.
Dung, Vu Van. 1996. Vietnam Forest Trees. Agriculture Publishing House, Hanoi, Vietnam.

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